مُتاح أيضًا بـ: arالعربية (Arabic)

Background

At International conferences held in Paris on 29 May 2018 and in Palermo on 12-13 November 2018, Libyan leaders committed themselves to a series of pledges that included working constructively with the United Nations‑facilitated efforts. Members of the Security Council welcomed the announcement made by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on 20 March 2019 that the National conference would take place from 14 to 16 April 2019 in Ghadames, Libya.[1]

That announcement was made in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates shortly after a meeting held on 28 February 2019 upon an invitation by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations in Libya and in his presence, and it was attended by Fayez al-Sarraj and Khalifa Haftar.

During that meeting, the two sides agreed on the need to end the transition through general elections and on ways to maintain Libya’s stability and unification of its institutions[2]

However, suddenly, Khalifa Haftar caused the situation to escalate by moving military formations towards Tripoli, Libya’s Capital city, claiming that it was to purge it of religious fanatic militants and extremists who control the city. On April 4, 2019, he announced launching “Operation Flood of Dignity” to liberate the capital which he said that it would end within 72 hours, However, After nearly three months the operation failed to leave behind a humanitarian disaster and thousands of dead and wounded victims including civilians as well as tens of thousands of displaced people as a result of this attack.

On 8-9 April 2019, a series of statements was issued by UN officials (Spokesman for the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations in Libya and head of the United Nations Support Mission in Libya, humanitarian coordinator in Libya) that condemn an airstrike carried out by an aircraft that belongs to the Libyan National Army on Mitiga Airport, the only functioning airport in the capital that is available to civilians, therefore, This attack constitutes a serious violation of international humanitarian law, which prohibits attacks on which civilians depend on.[3]

No single military or political actor has been able to exert a preponderance of control and sovereignty. Libya’s militia bosses and factional elites, including Haftar, have long had a mutual economic and political interest in keeping conflict simmering, eschewing both decisive outcomes on the battlefield and outside attempts to end the fighting. These armed actors have also had adroitly exploited competing and uncoordinated foreign interests in Libya.

And Haftar’s estimations for his attack ignored the fact that a large number of militias in Tripoli’s region have political and economic incentives and motives to defend their areas of influence, unlike the security vacuum in the south and the tribal demographics in the east, where Haftar has achieved greater success.

He also misjudged the reactions of elites and militias in Misurata. Haftar’s attack was not only betting on the element of surprise, but it was betting that internal divisions would prevent Misrata from reaching any agreement on responding to it. However, some considered his surprise attack as an act of treason, while others viewed it as an existential threat, so the result was a city-wide popular mobilization against him instead.[4]

[1] United Nations Support Mission in Libya, press release of the Security Council on Libya, 26 March 2019, http://bit.ly/2SlMQOP
[2] United Nations Support Mission in Libya, Ghassan Salame hosts a meeting between President of the Presidential Council Fayez Al-Sarraj and Commander of the Libyan National Army in the United Arab Emirates, 28 February 2019, http://bit.ly/30A7g9u
[3] United Nations Support Mission in Libya, Statement by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations in Libya, 8 April 2019 http://bit.ly/2LWNa5
[4] Carnegie the Middle Eastcenter, Libya's Everlasting War: Why the Solution Does not Support Militia Against Others, Frederick Wery, Emad Eddin Paddy, June 12, 2019, http://bit.ly/2SnfMWA

مُتاح أيضًا بـ: arالعربية (Arabic)

SHARE