Report of arrest and detention incidents on the basis of political background During 2020
This report covers a period of six months from January to June 2020. The monitoring methodology is based on counting the arrests on political grounds in Egypt which are multiple and recurrent cases under the current repressive political regime. The regime tends to obscure information concerning the incidents of arrest, but the activists of the Egyptian civil society are dedicated to ensuring the right of the Egyptian citizen and the international community in accessing such sensitive and important information as per the rights of detainees and preventing violations as much as possible.
It can be said that the violations of human rights in Egypt are an orchestrated policy of security and judicial institutions. The regime’s media also supports that policy with fallacies and rumors trying to cover up the violations and deny their existence.
It should be noted that the numbers mentioned in the report do not represent the total number of detainees during a certain period of time against the background of the same facts, but are considered as instantaneous rather than continuous events. Given that the incidents of arrest of persons issued in absentia sentences are not included since it is of a very wide range, and not enough data is available. The report also did not include any cases related to the North Sinai Governorate, except for those who were brought before the High State Security Prosecution (HSSP) Taking into account the repetition of the names of the accused or arrested more than once. It should be noted that the numbers of the counting were based on facts quoted from specific sources, in the following order of priority: (Official sources / human rights sources / media sources / family sources)
The general framework The methodology of monitoring and archive regarding this report:
In the context of the report, the case of “arrest and accusation on political grounds” was defined as every security movement (detention or arrest) or judicial action (accusation of arrest and summons) against persons on a political basis. What is meant by a political background here is incidents related directly to the public affairs and they are in three main sections, which are:
Important clarifications regarding the methodology of the report and criteria for including cases:
The report is considered an initial counting and its main purpose is to show the detailed and internal contexts and patterns of the incidents, their data and elements. The report may not fully express the actual total cases according to the same specified criteria. “Zero” number in the report doesn’t mean that there are no other cases in a certain time and place.
The report relied mainly on secondary sources, which were not directly verified from their primary sources, but the credibility of the source was taken into account and information was verified from multiple sources.
The elements of the sources relied upon to build the report are divided as follows:
The "main source type for incident approval" is divided as follows:
Problems related to sources:
The place of incidents
There are two separated geographic scopes:
The geographic scope was divided as the following
The background to the incident was divided as follows:
Type of activity:
One of the problems is that many cases are not based on a specific and clear incident, so the report relied on the following order to determine the type of activity:
The type of activity was divided as the following:
The incidents of arrest on the background of sporting activity contain several subdivisions which are:
“A state security issue": They are the people who are brought before the Supreme State Security Prosecution, on a political basis, without knowing the specific accusations against them.
'Party activity': The incidents that have been charged on the background of partisan activity, and contain several subdivisions, namely:
The type of the body that consider lawsuit was divided to the following:
The legal status for person was divided to the following:
In general, this counting covers more than 90% of the arrested persons who were brought before the Supreme State Prosecution (this is clear from many proofs). As for Public Prosecution, information is unclear especially in certain governorates such as Damietta and Kafr El Sheikh.
Regarding the State Security Prosecution, the continuation of pretrial detention was confirmed for 967 persons, while 933 persons were released. In addition, the legal situation for 3602 defendants wasn’t confirmed as a person wasn’t recorded as an arrested person without confirming the last renewal of his detention before the date of December 31. Even if it was evidently confirmed that his detention continues, except that if this information cannot be reached, he is recorded as unknown.
Regarding the accusations, 43% of the charges are counted. This is due to the fact that accusations are not recorded except in the case of mentioning an accurate source of accusations, even though in a governorate like Ash Sharqia more than 98% of detainees are charged with joining the Muslim Brotherhood Movement and possessing leaflets. However, rarely None of the sources mention the accusations, and basic information such as accusations cannot be assumed even if they are implicitly confirmed. Therefore, they are not recorded and the monitored number of incidents of arrest in Ash Sharqia is 2472 persons which is 27.5% of the total number.
The report covers
The same crisis is with regard to the Supreme State Security Prosecution in which human rights and media monitoring focus on specific issues
Since 70% of the incidents are related to accusations of joining, publishing and other accusations which are not related to specific incidents, the statistics are based on the province of residence.
Not every repetition in the incidents of arrest for the same person is an enlistment in new cases without actually releasing him, because there are people who are actually released then they are arrested and brought again before either to the Public Prosecution or the State Security Prosecution
In general, the counted number of arrested persons is almost the same as the number during 2019, and the difference is only due to the decrease in the number of the arrested persons during the incidents of September 20, 2020 as more than 5000 persons were arrested in September 2019 compared to September 2020 when 2445 persons were arrested. This reflects (the target) policy of the Ministry of Interior.
It is clear that the jurisdiction of the Supreme State Prosecution is in certain geographical regions which are Cairo, the Canal, Northern Sinai, Upper Egypt and Alexandria. On the other hand, the jurisdiction of the Public Prosecution is in Delta, Al Qalyubia, Beheira and the rest of governorates but under the direct supervision of the Supreme State Security Prosecution (SSSP) which may request the case file in order to investigate in, especially that all these case files are recorded with a number in the State Security Counting.
There is a weakness in data on the governorates of Kafr El Sheikh, Damietta, Ismailia and Upper Egypt due to the lack of news about them and the fear of lawyers from writing regarding investigations and cases in which they attend.
With the exception of the events of September 20, approximately 95% of the incidents of arrest were carried out through security raids, and not being arrested from the streets, as happened in most of the arrests in the events of September 20, 2020.
During 2020, 8,961 incidents of security or judicial action were recorded against persons on a political background in all governorates of the Republic, except for North Sinai, through 145 police departments, cities and Marakiz (the second-level, beneath and within governorates) The number is divided between 8802 cases of “arrest” and referral to the prosecution, and 159 cases of “arrest and then dismissed from the minutes” or “no minutes was actually made”, knowing that all cases in which no information was reached about whether they were excluded from this inventory The case has been presented to the prosecution or was dismissed without making a report.
This counting consists of two main parts:
3,676 people have been monitored with available case numbers. This represents 41% of the total number of those who were counted and detained in connection with 231 different cases, including 77 cases belonging to the High State Security Prosecution. In addition to the 5284 whose case numbers could not be reached.
The three largest cases containing accused persons, are by the following order:
Supreme State Security counting
Supreme State Security counting
Supreme State Security counting
As for the background of the incident
Distribution of arrest and detention per district
As for the time period of the arrest incidents, 1695 incidents were monitored during the first quarter of the year, which represents about 18.9%, and 1085 incidents during the second quarter, which represents about 12%, and 2387 incidents during the third quarter, which represents about 26.6%, and 1878 incidents during the fourth quarter This represents approximately 20.9%, and 1916 unspecified incidents, which represents approximately 21.3%
A comprehensive distribution for the incidents of arrest and detention based on the month of the arrest incident
As for the governorates and geographical regions, the largest geographical region in which incidents occurred within its scope is Cairo, with a rate of 3885 incidents, representing a rate of 43.3%. The governorates of Cairo are followed by the governorates of the Delta with 2,554 cases which represents 28.5%. Then they are followed by the governorates of Lower Egypt with 640 arrests which represent 7.1%, and 297 cases of Upper Egypt which represent 3.3%. 39 cases for the governorates of Canal and North Sinai which represent 0.4%. In addition to the 1543 unknown governorate to which the person belongs, representing 17.2%, and one case of deportation outside Egypt.
A total of 127 females were arrested, representing 1.4%. And 8834 males were arrested, representing 98.6%
For age groups:
Under 18 years
from 18 to 30 years
from 31 to 40 years
from 41 to 50 years
from 51 to 60 years
over 60 years
age is unknown
As for the charges, the charges against 3875 persons were counted, representing 43.2%, and this included:
Charges related to joining an entity, whether a terrorist group or a banned group, etc., or promoting ideas or financing any of those groups to 3723 people. In addition to charges related to electronic publishing to 3033 persons and accusations of demonstrating or gathering to 2440 persons, in addition to 331 persons who have been charged for possession or promotion of publications and prints.
Taking into account that usually two or more of the aforementioned accusations are directed.
As the accusations related to, whether a terrorist group or a banned group, etc. or promoting ideas or financing any of these groups were associated with the charges related to electronic publishing against 3021 persons.
The previous accusations were also associated with charges related to demonstrating or gathering 2301 times.
Regarding students, arrest incidents were monitored for 172 students, including 17 preparatory school students, 46 secondary school students, and 109 college students.
As for jobs, according to the most prominent professions that a number of their members have been arrested, the most monitored group by order, 100 teachers, 71 engineers, 63 workers, 58 lawyers, 39 doctors and 32 journalists, in addition to 14 researchers.
Also, the arrest of 12 faculties members was monitored.
Statistical presentation according to the investigation authorities
High State Security Prosecution:
The number of those who were brought before the High State Security Prosecution reached 5505, representing 61.4% of the total number of those who are counted, including 110 females and 5396 males.
735 final release decisions and 199 persons with precautionary measures were recorded, in addition to the confirmation of continuing the imprisonment of 967 persons and three deaths. There are 3601 accused persons with uncertain legal status.
Among the release decisions, 10 were a release on bail with a total of EGP 385,000. Even though three persons were referred for substantive trial among the persons who were brought before the High State Security Prosecution.
The Public Prosecution
The number of those persons who were brought before the Public Prosecution office during the reporting period was 3,287. Representing 36.6% of the total number of those who were counted, including 13 females and 1713 males
The release decisions were monitored against 758 persons, and 58 of them were referred for trial.
The issuance of bail release decisions against 511 people, with a total of 2,426,000 Egyptian pounds, in addition to 284 persons whose detention is confirmed to be continued, and there are 726 persons whose legal status is unknown. And 15 deaths.
In total, 1571 people were referred for substantive trial from those before the Public Prosecution, of whom 128 were referred to criminal courts, and 1443 cases were referred to misdemeanor courts.
The number of those who were referred to criminal courts reached 128 persons, to the Criminal Court, the Emergency Supreme State Security Services, where 62 persons were acquitted, 53 were found guilty, and the cases of 13 persons had not yet been decided.
The number of those who were referred to misdemeanor courts reached 1,443 persons, including 1,429 persons who were referred to misdemeanor courts in the emergency supreme state security circuits. In addition, 14 persons were referred to misdemeanor courts, terrorism departments where 450 people were acquitted, 417 people were found guilty, and the verdicts were reported to include fines estimated at 6,156,850 Egyptian pounds.
In addition to the death of two people, one of them after being sentenced, and the other before being sentenced.
The cases of 298 persons are still on trial and we don’t know the judgment of 278. In addition,the discontinuance of a legal action for 3 persons pending the recusation request.