Studies And Researchers Program publications 1

The crisis of the Democratic transition : a crisis of transition and democracy

مُتاح أيضًا بـ: العربية (Arabic)

This report covers the extended period from October 1 to December 31, 2020. It includes three countries: Egypt, Tunisia and Libya. The report is on the policies and legislations related to democratic transition and human rights:
It reviews the indicators of a systematic policy of the Egyptian regime to deepen its dominance. In addition, it shows all the regime’s tools which emptied every thinking for a democratic transition in Egypt. The road to make dictatorship prevail starts through a set of amendments that included the Constitution and a set of laws such as the Law Redrawing Electoral Districts and the law on Exercise of Political Rights. In addition, 6 laws related to the Armed Forces, Terrorist Entities, NGO and its bylaws. This road has led to the legislative elections. Through using the law and political institutions, the regime restricted and excluded opposition in the Parliament in order to limit its presence to some persons unlike what was in the previous parliament.
Meanwhile, political clientelism, family favoritism and influence circles were established from independent businessmen and persons with security and military backgrounds. In the two chambers of the legislative authority there is at least 30 persons who are relatives, brothers and cousins who have gathered to support the regime. The later wasn’t satisfied by controlling institutions on the basis of dictatorship, rather it moves to establish a network of security, family, political and financial interests supervised by the security and intelligence in order not to let anyone escape from its circle of power. Through the Nation’s Future party, the regime replaced the previous parliament’s faces by new faces in order to practice the same repressive policy. Thus, every argument on separation of powers and balance among them has been become a luxury and speech freezing by the Egyptian regime.
The regime has used exceptional measures such as precautionary measures and pretrial detention as original penalties that prolong the imprisonment of activists. Moreover, civil society organizations are threatened by the law on terrorist entities. Regardless their political orientations, everyone is a terrorist or a potential terrorist according to the regime as this is considered the regime’s ready made charge . Meanwhile, judicial rulings enhance this situation as they are a tool of acquittal for those persons accused of corruption, however they criminalize activists automatically. In addition they are the are the reason for enhancing violence against the Christian minority. The last ruling regarding the second Maspero’s massacre is an evidence of structural and systematic discrimination against this minority in a clear violation of the rules and principles of the international law, in addition to the commitments of the Egyptian state to protect Christians and strengthen their positive appearance in public space.
Regarding Tunisia, the report presents its view for a democratic transition in Tunisia based on “the second transition” which is establishing the authority which is capable of managing and completing the transition as it should be. Tunisia lives on a crisis of a multi-level representation. As the partisan scene is fragile and fragmented between parties that doubt democracy or belong to the previous regime or keen to ensure its political position. Thus they don’t play their entrusted role in representing their supporters and defending people’s demands. This makes political life moves under the political interests which gather yesterday’s enemies. The crisis of representation has moved to the Assembly of Representatives as it presents a violent parliamentary scene both physically and verbally which proves that MPs are far from performing their Representative parliamentary role in favor of the interest of a political one. This reality enhanced the functional role of parties and political figures. The Dignity Coalition appears as a barricade for the Ennahda movement against the attacks of the Free Constitutional party and the later represents the counter speech.
Authorities and administration face a conflict among their presidencies in the context of personalizing the conflict in the names of Rached Ghannouchi, Kais Saeied and Hecham Mechichi. In a similar situation, ruling has become situational as it moves according to the impacts of events whether to conclude an agreement with protesters or satisfy a certain professional sector especially with the difficulty of developing a political will on joint strategies and programs.
On the human rights level, the report regarding Tunisia shows the weakness in the institutional institutions which are considered one of the guarantees of human rights. Mutual cooperation is absent between the government and independent bodies. In addition, the reports issued by independent or regulatory bodies such as the Court of Accounts are not actually taken into consideration. These bodies are almost suspended which affects enhancing human rights
In Libya, dialogue is progressing from the top. In its details, the report reviewed the participants’ names according to their political and intellectuall orientations in a accurate detail Libyans protest the absence of a real representation for the Libyan people in the political dialogue which has suspicion of corruption and political money that sought imposing certain names. In addition, the military agreement seems difficult to be implemented as the rest of its articles aren’t activated regarding the withdrawal of fighters from the contact lines and the dismissal of mercenaries and foreign fighters. In addition, the coastal road remains closed which link the east and west of Libya On the economic level, a unified meeting was held and it is considered the first from five years, however the rest of procedures are far and they are considered capable of changing the living condition for Libyans and restoring the national and official economy.
On the human rights level, death holes in Tarhunah continues to appear to increase the number of corpses, however judicial follow up and reconciliation don’t exist in order to overcome the burden of the recent bloody past. While armed militias play a main role in repressing protesters, alignment and fighting which reflects on the political dialogue and its prospects at the same time.

مُتاح أيضًا بـ: العربية (Arabic)

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